Type 2 Secretion in Pathogenic Bacteria

Type 2 Secretion in Pathogenic Bacteria
For the secretion of substances, some complex proteins are present in the cell membranes of the bacteria. This system is known as bacterial secretion system. These are also known as the cellular devices which are used to invade the host cells. The structure, composition and activities of these cells are classified into different types. Their main types are gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. These gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria are further classified into sub-branches. Type 2 secretion system is a branch of gram-negative bacteria. Here, experts of cheap dissertation writing services will discuss type 2 secretion in pathogenic bacteria.

Overview of type 2 secretion in pathogenic bacteriaType 2 secretion system is a membrane-bound complex protein. Usually, it is found in the gram-negative bacteria. The main function of type 2 secretion protein is to secrete the proteins. With the help of the type 2 secretion system, we can secrete different kinds of proteins like proteases and lipases. Type 2 secretion system is a two-step secretion system. During the first step, the proteins are transported through the inner membrane of the bacteria. During the second step, these proteins are secreted.

Structure of type 2 secretionIt is multi-protein machinery. Its reason is that it has lots of protein subunits. These protein subunits are known as GSPs (General Secretary Proteins). The main components of the structure of type 2 secretion are explained below;

Outer membrane complexIt is made up of GspD. The secretions that are found in the membrane are known as beta-barrels and these beta-barrels allow the substances to move in or out of the cells. The GspD is essential for the correct function of the proteins. It is also observed that GspD is associated with the lipoprotein GspS. In the presence of the highly degradative enzymes, there is a possibility of breaking down the GspD. Under such situation, GspS are helpful to us because they prevent the GspD from breakage.

Inner membrane complexThe inner membrane complex is made up of different kinds of Gsp. There are four main types of proteins in the inner membrane complex. These four types are GSPC, GspL, GspM and GspF. These different kinds of proteins play as individual units in the inner membrane complex.

Secretion ATPaseThe secretion ATPase is found close to the inner membrane complex. This ATPase has distinct hexametric structure. There are three domains of these hexametric. First two are known as N-terminal domains and the names of these N-terminal domains are N1D and N2D. There is also a C terminal domain.

Mechanism of type 2 secretion in pathogenic bacteriaThe mechanism of type 2 secretion is uniform among different kinds of bacteria. This mechanism is further divided into several steps. The first step is known as exoproteins. The second step is known as pre-pseudoprimes. The third step is known as secretion ATPase. In the fourth step, there occurs the activation of the exoproteins. In the last step, we can observe the attended effects of these exoproteins. For the activation of type 2 secretion in pathogenic bacteria, quorum sensing plays an important role.

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